Evaluation of the in vitro Antioxidant and Cytotoxic Effects of E. hirta Ethanolic Extract

Asian Journal of Biological and Life Sciences,2024,13,1,138-143.
Published:June 2024
Type:Research Article
Author(s) affiliations:

Senniappan Palanisamy1,2,3, Kolli Srinivas4,*, Mandava Venkata Basaveswara Rao1

1 Department of Pharmacy, Centre for Research Study, Krishna University, Rudravaram, Machilipatnam, Krishna, Andhra Pradesh, INDIA.

2 Department of Pharmacognosy, Vinayaka Mission’s College of Pharmacy, Vinayaka Mission’s Research Foundation (DU), Kondappanaickenpaaty, Salem, Tamil Nadu, INDIA.

3 Department of Pharmacognosy, Shri Venkateshwara College of Pharmacy, Ariyur, Puducherry, INDIA.

4Department of Pharmacognosy, VJ’s College of Pharmacy, Diwancheruvu, Rajahmundry, Andhra Pradesh, INDIA.


Background: Numerous studies have been carried out to investigate the efficiency of herbal remedies for hepatic illnesses, particularly hepatitis. Aim: This study aimed to evaluate the antioxidant activity (DPPH assay) and cytotoxicity against HepG2 human liver cancer cell lines of the ethanolic extract of Euphorbia hirta L., obtained from Salem, Tamil Nadu, India. Material and Methods: The complete Euphorbia hirta L. plant was air-dried and crushed. The resulting powder (500 g) was continuously extracted with ethanol in a Soxhlet apparatus. A phytochemical study verified the existence of many biologically active components, including tannins, flavonoids, phenols, and alkaloids, in the extracts of Euphorbia hirta L. Results: The ethanolic extract of Euphorbia hirta L. was assessed for its antioxidant activity, demonstrating a noteworthy antioxidant capacity (61.29% at 250 μg), which is comparable to the antioxidant activity of ascorbic acid (62.17% at 100 μg/mL) in the DPPH assay. In addition, we examined the ability of the extract to inhibit cancer growth in HepG2 cells using an MTT assay. The IC50 value, which represents the concentration of Euphorbia hirta L. ethanolic extract necessary to destroy 50% of cells, was determined to be 200 μg over a 24 hr period. The results indicate that the ethanolic extract derived from the entire Euphorbia hirta L. plant contains active phytoconstituents, which exhibit strong antioxidant activity and notable cytotoxicity against HepG2 human liver cancer cell lines. Conclusion: This study suggests that the whole plant extract of Euphorbia hirta L. has the potential to be used in the treatment of liver illnesses, specifically hepatitis.