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An Insight into the Host-Pathogen Interactions between macrophage and Different Microbial Species: A Detailed Approach

Asian Journal of Biological and Life Sciences,2024,13,1,1-8.
Published:May 2024
Type:Research Article
Authors:
Author(s) affiliations:

Aparajita Chakraborty1, Malavika Bhattacharya2,*

1Department of Biotechnology, St Xavier’s College (Autonomous), Kolkata, West Bengal, INDIA.

2Department of Biotechnology, Techno India University, West Bengal, INDIA.

Abstract:

The macrophage phagolysosome possesses a highly acidic environment which explains its antimicrobial properties. Many strains of bacterial strains which are Gram-positive such as Staphylococcus aureus replicates within the niche and possesses the GraXRS regulatory system to counter the acidic pH within macrophages. On the other hand, Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) expresses Hsp 16.3 to counteract the inflammatory cytokine response, phagocytosis or pathogen escape by M1 or M2 macrophages respectively. In Gram-negative Bacterial cells such as E. coli mediate the SLAMF1-induced trafficking of TRAM in macrophages which is stimulated particularly against the bacterial Lipopolysaccharides (LPS).Virulent factors such MgtC and OprF are defensive mechanisms, used by Pseudomonas aeruginosa for survival at the acidic pH in macrophages. Interaction between SARS-CoV-2a strain of the coronavirus and macrophage results in cytokine secretion by macrophages. It gives rise to a cytokine storm which is combatted by spike protein S. A new variant of Coronavirus, i.e. omicron’s binding affinity to Abs was found to be reduced and its structure elucidated using various computational tools. Future research on more such interactions would help to decipher the detailed molecular mechanisms of such variants and their role in targeted drug delivery