The Prevalence of Soil-Transmitted Helminths (STH) and Entamoeba spp. Infections in Southeast Asia: A Systematic Review

Asian Journal of Biological and Life Sciences,2023,12,2,216-223.
Published:September 2023
Type:Review Article
Author(s) affiliations:

Patricia Andrea I. Valenciano, Amante C. Soriano III, Hazel Mae L. Sisican, Eloisa Fami I. Paragas, Kayla T. Tabarina, Kaycelyn B. Ramos, Charlene Princess S. Tolenada

Department of Medical Technology, Institute of Health Sciences and Nursing, Far Eastern University – Manila, Nicanor Reyes St., Sampaloc, Manila, Metro Manila, PHILIPPINES.


Background: Soil-Transmitted Helminths (STH) infection and Entamoeba species, specifically Entamoeba histolytica are known to infect billions worldwide – creating a global health problem; continues to be an international concern due to poor sanitation and unhygienic practices. The primary objective of this review is to evaluate the presence, prevalence, and trend of STH and Entamoeba spp., specifically, A. lumbricoides, T. trichiura, N. americanus, A. duodenale, E. histolytica, and E. dispar in Southeast Asia. Materials and Methods: Materials and methods include gathering and evaluating peer-reviewed and credible journal articles that have met the set standards for this review through PRISMA. Results: Among the fourteen journals reviewed, the most prevalent parasite in Southeast Asia is A. lumbricoides, with 36%, followed by T. trichiura garnered 35%, Hookworms, specifically, N. americanus and A. duodenale come third with 26%, and lastly, Entamoeba spp., specifically, E. histolytica and E. dispar come last with 3% rating. Along with this, the review also found that the Philippines garnered the highest-tallied intestinal parasitic infection, while Cambodia has the lowest number of recorded infections in the reviewed journals. Furthermore, the trend of parasitic infection in Southeast Asia was found to be highest in 2017. Conclusion: This review found that common factors such as poor sanitary conditions, and poor hygiene practices, along with tropical to warm and humid weather affect the longevity of the STH and Entamoeba species life cycle in Southeast Asia.