Background: Assam is a state in the North East of India popular for its diverse culture and traditions. There are several different ethnic groups in Assam. The state has a wide variety of flora and fauna. Various types of fish can be found in the rivers Brahmaputra and Barak, as well as in their tributaries, ponds, ditches, etc. Although the medical sector in Assam has advanced considerably through technological advances, some Assamese people still rely on traditional medicines. Assamese traditional medicine has a long history and is being used today in various regions of the state to treat patients with a variety of health issues utilizing products obtained from animals. Numerous studies have shown that various Assamese ethnic groups and indigenous people use fish in their traditional medical practices. The usage of fish in religious rituals is also mentioned in certain articles. The present study will analyze how various ethnic groups and other indigenous peoples of Assam use Stinging catfish and Asian catfish in traditional medicine. Materials and Methods: Research Gate, Google Scholar and other authentic websites have been used to search most of the literature. Conclusion: The present review revealed that both fish had been used in traditional medicine by different ethnic and non-ethnic people of Assam. These fish are used by the ethnic tribes to heal various illnesses. However, additional research is necessary to compile more data from this field.