ESBL Klebsiella pneumoniae contributes widely to the alarming increase observed globally in antibiotic resistance within the past few years. The aquaculture sector is known as a fast-emerging business today. It is one of the significant concerning sectors with the emerging ESBL-producing K. pneumoniae due to its complex treatment and easy-transfer genes. This mini-review aims to determine the emergence of bla-CTX-M and bla-TEM genes in ESBL-producing K. pneumoniae found in aquaculture within Southeast Asia. All qualified journals considered have been conscientiously examined and passed the mini-review criteria; 8 eligible studies from Southeast Asia from 2016 to 2021 were utilized. Among the eight journals, five out of the eight studies have displayed the detection of the bla-CTX-M gene found within freshwater, fish markets, and integrated farming systems in Thailand and India, with a prevalence of 44.38% and 33.73%, respectively. The remaining three studies display bla-TEM genes found in freshwater, retail markets, and freshwater aquaculture in Hongkong and the Philippines, with a prevalence of 19.53% and 2.37%. Within Southeast Asia, 37.50% account for the bla-TEM gene, while 62.50% account for bla-CTX-M, making it the most pervasive gene found within Southeast Asia. Infections caused by ESBL-producing K. pneumoniae can be resistant to various antibiotics, complicating the treatment process. Observing proper hygiene and taking extra precautions can significantly reduce ESBL-producing K. pneumoniae emergence.
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