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Pathobiology of Multidrug Resistant Acinetobacter baumannii: An update

Asian Journal of Biological and Life Sciences,2021,10,1,15-26.
Published:May 2021
Type:Review Article
Author(s) affiliations:

Sunil Kumar1,*, Mukesh Yadav1, Nirmala Sehrawat1, Rakesh1, Jihad Alrehaili2, Razique Anwer2

1Department of Biotechnology, Maharishi Markandeshwar (Deemed to be University), Mullana (Ambala), Haryana, INDIA.

2Department of Pathology, College of Medicine, Imam Mohammad Ibn Saud Islamic University, Riyadh, SAUDI ARABIA.


Acinetobacter baumannii is an opportunistic nosocomial pathogen responsible for mortality and mobidity asscoaited with hospital acquired infections worldwide. Antimicrobial resistance due to natural and acquired modes facilitates A. baumannii as one of the most significant nosocomial pathogens. Challenging most issue is the carbapenem resistance in A. baumannii in the healthcare settings worldwide, which is conferred by several mechanisms including: beta-lactamases, reduced permeability of the outer membrane, efflux pumps, and modification of penicillinbinding proteins. Among these, carbapenem-hydrolysing enzymes are the foremost mechanism that belongs to Ambler class D and B beta-lactamases. Several techniques are used to study the molecular epidemiology like WGS, PFGE, MLST, RFLP and RAPD. Among these, MLST is the gold standard, which are prevalently used to study the evolutionary geentics and clonal relatedness of A. baumannii clones. A. baumannii has been investigated in a number of outbreaks in clinical settings and spread of infections in hospital environments. To enhance our knowledge, in this review, we study the taxonomy, lab diagnosis, molecular techniques of identification, mechanisms of its antimicrobial resistance, molecular epidemiology and outbreaks, bacterial cell firness and use of animal models in multidrug resistant (MDR) A. baumannii.